A case presentation is a formal communication between health care professionals regarding a patient's clinical information. Essential parts of a case. A case presentation is a narrative of a patient's care, so it is vital the presenter has familiarity with the patient, the case and its progression. The ability to present a patient is a core skill for any physician. Follow these steps to give a clear and effective oral case presentation.
If the presenting condition is unusual or rare, for example, acute porphyria, and there are no local or national guidelines available, a literature search may help locate articles or case studies similar to the case. Currently, there are no available acknowledged guidelines or systematic descriptions of the structure, language and function of the oral case presentation  and therefore there is no standard on how the skills required to prepare or present a case are taught.
Most individuals are introduced to this concept at undergraduate level and then build on their skills through practice-based learning. The preparation for the presentation will depend on what information is to be included.
Generally, oral case presentations are brief and should be limited to 5—10 minutes. The audience should be interested in what is being said so the presenter should maintain this engagement through eye contact, clear speech and enthusiasm for the case. It is important to stick to the facts by presenting the case as a factual timeline and not describing how things should have happened instead.
A successful oral case presentation allows the audience to garner the right amount of patient information in the most efficient way, enabling a clinically appropriate plan to be developed. The challenge lies with the fact that the content and delivery of this will vary depending on the service, and clinical and audience setting . A practitioner with less experience may find understanding the balance between sufficient information and efficiency of communication difficult, but regular use of the oral case presentation tool will improve this skill.
Most case presentations are not tailored to a specific audience because the same type of information will usually need to be conveyed in each case. However, case presentations can be adapted to meet the identified learning needs of the target audience, if required for training purposes.
This method involves varying the content of the presentation or choosing specific cases to present that will help achieve a set of objectives . For example, if a requirement to learn about the management of acute myocardial infarction has been identified by the target audience, then the presenter may identify a case from the cardiology ward to present to the group, as opposed to presenting a patient reviewed by that person during their normal working practice.
Alternatively, a presenter could focus on a particular condition within a case, which will dictate what information is included. For example, if a case on asthma is being presented, the focus may be on recent use of bronchodilator therapy, respiratory function tests including peak expiratory flow rate , symptoms related to exacerbation of airways disease, anxiety levels, ability to talk in full sentences, triggers to worsening of symptoms, and recent exposure to allergens.
These may not be considered relevant if presenting the case on an unrelated condition that the same patient has, for example, if this patient was admitted with a hip fracture and their asthma was well controlled. The oral case presentation may also act as the basis of workplace-based assessment in the form of a case-based discussion.
Mastery of the oral case presentation skill could provide useful preparation for this assessment process. A case-based discussion would include a pharmaceutical needs assessment, which involves identifying and prioritising pharmaceutical problems for a particular patient. Evidence-based guidelines relevant to the specific medical condition should be used to make treatment recommendations, and a plan to monitor the patient once therapy has started should be developed.
You can use the following forms to record your learning and action points from this article from Pharmaceutical Journal Publications. You must be registered and logged into the site to do this. Any training, learning or development activities that you undertake for CPD can also be recorded as evidence as part of your RPS Faculty practice-based portfolio when preparing for Faculty membership. To start your RPS Faculty journey today, access the portfolio and tools at www.
If your learning was planned in advance, please click: If your learning was spontaneous, please click: The role of case presentation for teaching and learning activities. The supplement is a must read for medical students — apart from making your presentations more efficient and meaningful, it will make life in ED less stressful, and make you look good too!
Remember that the student case presentation is the main way teachers in ED judge the abilities of their students for better or worse.
He has a passion for helping clinicians learn and for improving the clinical performance of individuals and collectives. After finishing his medical degree at the University of Auckland, he continued post-graduate training in New Zealand as well as Australia's Northern Territory, Perth and Melbourne.
He has since completed further training in emergency medicine, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology and health professional education. He created the 'Critically Ill Airway' course and teaches on numerous courses around the world. His one great achievement is being the father of two amazing children.
Groups talked for 4 minutes before the resident called for order to commence step three. Call for order and ask people to offer their suggested diagnoses and write these up on a board or transparency. The following hypotheses were suggested by the groups and the resident wrote them on a flip chart: The initial three or four bits of information generated eight hypotheses. After all hypotheses have been listed instruct the audience to ask for the information they need to confirm or refute these hypotheses.
There will be a temptation to move too fast and the exercise is wasted if information is given too soon. Recall that the purpose is to help them go through a thinking process which requires time. Indeed, an interesting teaching session can be conducted by simply asking students to generate hypotheses without proceeding further.
There is evidence to suggest that when a diagnosis is not considered initially it is unlikely to be reached over time, Hence it is worth spending time with students to discuss the hypotheses they generate before they proceed with an enquiry. Directions to the group were to determine what questions they would like to ask, based on gender, age and probabilities, to support or exclude the listed diagnostic possibilities.
A sample of question follow:. After enough information has been gained to proceed, ask them to resume their discussion about the problem and reformulate their diagnostic hypotheses in light of the new information. Instruct them to discuss which pieces of information changed the working diagnosis and why. Call for order again and ask people what they now think.
After allowing the group to talk for a few minutes, the resident asked them if there was enough information to strike off any hypotheses or if new hypotheses should be added to the list. One more possibility was added, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. One group's list of priorities was major affective disorder with psychosis, schizophrenia, personality disorder. Another group also placed affective disorder first followed by organic mood disorder.
Alter the original lists of hypotheses on the board in light of the discussion, or allow one member from each group to alter their own lists. By the use of open-ended questions encourage a general discussion about the reasons a group has for preferring one diagnosis over another. A general discussion ensued about reasons for these priorities. Then the list was altered so that it read: Continue with another round of information and small-group discussion or else allow the whole group to interact.
By giving information only when asked for and only in correct sequence, each person is challenged to think through the problem. More information was sought, such as: After 5 minutes the resident asked if there were only lab tests they would like.
The group asked for thyroid stimulating hormone, T4, electrolytes and were given the results. They also asked for the results of the physical examination and were told that the pulse was and the thyroid was enlarged. At this point some hypotheses were removed from the list.
When there is a lull in the search for information, ask the groups to reach consensus on their final diagnosis, given the information they have. Allow discussion within the groups. On each group's list of hypothesis, star or underline the final diagnosis.
A Guide to Case Presentations. Print-out document to accompany dbcloud.info module The Oral Presentation. For more information please see. Reflux symptoms most common presentation. Vomiting; Regurgitation; Abdominal pain; Dysphagia; Food refusal/poor wt. gain. Unresponsive to PPIs for GERD. Internists have traditionally given special attention to case presentation skills because of the comprehensive nature of patient evaluations and the various.