Recent study has shown that some estrogen metabolites are capable of producing genome instability [ 41]. A recent study has shown significant malnutrition among Palestinian children, diplomats familiar with its results said. A recent study has shown that it has having a limited. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of. A new study led by researchers at the Earth-Life Science Institute of Tokyo Tech provides new answers to this question. Microbial Latest Health Headlines.
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There are many benefits to timing your practice , including: Is there something wrong with our timer? I'll try it now. Hide Show timer Statistics. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. A had elected early retirement rather than face B had elected early retirement instead of facing C have elected retiring early instead of facing D have elected to retire early rather than facing E have elected to retire early rather than face Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition, Practice Question Question No.: OG Verbal Review 2, SC 39 Verb form; Parallelism For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: When a choice is presented using the rather than construction- the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y -the x and the y must be parallel.
In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than to understood face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood. A Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
B Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel. C Have elected must be followed by an infinitive to retire. D Facing and to retire early are not parallel. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and to understood face are parallel. The correct answer is E. Originally posted by redferrocene on Oct 25, 5: Last edited by Bunuel on Dec 20, 9: Most Helpful Expert Reply.
To avoid shift of tense, one has to maintain present perfect in the subordinate clause also. Among C, D and E, C is out because of using instead of. In D, to retire ….. E is the best choice. To retire, an infinitive, matches face, elliptically meaning to face. Most Helpful Community Reply. E is better because it is using present perfect tense. The passage is in the present tense so talking about an event that happened prior to another event in the present and could be still ongoing , we use present perfect.
Read on about present and past perfect and verb tenses in general: Here's an attempt at an explanation In the sentence given, there isn't really a sequence of events, it's a stating a recent study. Here's an example of where had will make sense, The doctors had retired before the lawyers sued them for malpractice. In this sentence, had is used to indicate that an event occured before another event.
First the doctors retired, then the lawyers sued them. You cannot elect early retirement, but you can elect to retire early. Only D and E are possible choices. E is the best for parallellism because "elected to retire" is parallel to "face". Here I am talking about usage of verbs to maintain the parallelism. If you use "to" before "face" then it looks like the doctors have elected to face something.
Those sentences are least parallel. I have found this material when looking for instead of vs rather than: The phrase rather than consists of an adverb and a conjunction and often means "and not," as in I decided to skip lunch rather than eat in the cafeteria again. I would stay here and eat flies sooner than go with them. Rather than can also be used with nouns as a compound preposition meaning "instead of": I bought a mountain bike rather than a ten-speed.
But some people object to this use, insisting that than should be used only as a conjunction. They therefore object to constructions in which rather than is followed by a gerund, as in Rather than buying a new car, I kept my old one.
In some cases, however, rather than can only be followed by a gerund and not by a bare infinitive. If the main verb of the sentence has a form that does not allow parallel treatment of the verb following rather than, you cannot use a bare infinitive, and you must use a gerund.
This is often the case when the main verb is in a past tense or has a participle. Thus, you must say The results of the study, rather than ending not end or ended the controversy, only added to it. If the main verb was in the present tense add , you could use the bare infinitive end. Curiously, when the rather than construction follows the main verb, it can use other verb forms besides the bare infinitive.
Thus you can say The results of the study added to the controversy rather than ended it. The overriding concern in all of this should be to avoid faulty parallels, as in sentences like Rather than buy a new car, I have kept my old one and Rather than take a cab, she is going on foot. Clearly, it is grammatically defensible to follow rather than with a gerund, but if you prefer to avoid the controversy, use instead of with gerunds.
Based on what the bolded paragraph says the answer I think is C. A had elected early retirement rather than face B had elected early retirement instead of facing C have elected retiring early instead of facing D have elected to retire early rather than facing E have elected to retire early rather than face how do v decide upon usage of 'rather than' and 'instead of'..? Originally posted by ugimba on Jul 08, 1: Last edited by ugimba on Jul 09, 1: A had elected early retirement rather than face B had elected early retirement instead of facing C have elected retiring early instead of facing D have elected to retire early rather than facing E have elected to retire early rather than face I could reach to final two: Not able to find out which one is correct and why.
Can someone please throw some light? I eliminated E because I thought 2 structures are not parallel because you dont have a 'to' before face 2 What is wrong with C retiring and facing are parallel.
Usage of "Rather than" means preference of one over another and Usage of "instead of" means replacing one thing with another. Moreover instead of can only be used in case of Noun and verbs or actions so in below only A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
A had elected early retirement rather than face no two actions are there so usage of had not correct. B had elected early retirement instead of facing out instead of is used C have elected retiring early instead of facing Out instead of is used D have elected to retire early rather than facing to retire not parallel with facing E have elected to retire early rather than face correct construction.
A had elected early retirement rather than face had is not correct B had elected early retirement instead of facing had is not correct C have elected retiring early instead of facing "have elected retiring" does not sound right to me, also there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing" D have elected to retire early rather than facing there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing" E have elected to retire early rather than face correct.
Please correct me if I am wrong Please Kudo me if my post helped you. A had elected early retirement rather than face B had elected early retirement instead of facing C have elected retiring early instead of facing D have elected to retire early rather than facing E have elected to retire early rather than face 1. Within the past few years means from past few year which means its still continuing hence A and B out.
Here doctors opted so elected to is correct usage here. Hence C is out. Hi An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please.
Display posts from previous: All posts 1 day 7 days 2 weeks 1 month 3 months 6 months 1 year Sort by Author Post time Subject Ascending Descending. Dec 20, 9: OA E Originally posted by redferrocene on Oct 25, 5: Jul 09, 1: But also remember you can use 'rather than' to emphasize priority over something.
Whenever you have a choice between "instead of" and "rather than" in gmat, select "rather than". What's a bit harder to explain is that their mood lift lasted up to 12 hours.
Scientists may have a clue though. Preliminary research presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Neuroscience found that when the brains of rats were studied after the rodents had been subjected to stress made to swim in cold water , those that had been allowed to run beforehand reacted less to the stress than those that hadn't.
In the critters at least, the new brain cells created by exercise appeared to help them resist stress. In other words, exercise — a "positive" stress — effectively rewired their brains to help them better deal with less pleasant stress.
Researchers say the same may be true of humans. Here are some quick tips to help you stress less. Will any old way of raising your heartbeat also raise your success meter? Moderate-intensity cardiovascular exercise — such as pedaling a bike, walking briskly, or anything where you're breaking a sweat but can still carry on a conversation — shows promise in lab studies. It takes at least 30 minutes of cardio three times a week to yield results, says Arthur F.
And if you can build up to daily cardio sessions, recent studies show that you may boost BDNF in your brain more rapidly than if you work out every other day. But it still might take a while to build the kind of brainpower that buffers you against stress. After a few months of a regular cardio habit, gradually increase the intensity of your workouts to boost your mental returns.
Or try alternating between your usual routine and some workouts that are mentally challenging, such as dancing or tennis, a few times a week. Activities like these require coordination, which engages several areas of the brain at once — it's the mental equivalent of doing a pushup to work your entire upper body versus a biceps curl that targets only one muscle. And if you happen to take a break from regular exercise, even for up to two weeks, no worries.
Your brain has a molecular memory, which helps it churn out high levels of BDNF after just two days of hitting the elliptical again. If a few hours a week on the treadmill ultimately helps you think quicker, make better decisions, and climb the ladder at work, your sweat will have literally paid off.
Crank up your workout with cardio. The next time you hear a candy bar calling your name, try taking a hike. In one recent study published in the journal Appetite , subjects who took a brisk minute walk decreased their cravings for chocolate by 12 percent. Just be sure to choose a route away from the vending machine.
A study in the journal Obesity found that just 80 minutes of cardio a week slowed weight gain and stopped participants from gaining visceral fat the dangerous kind inside the abdomen that's been linked to diabetes and cardiovascular disease a year after weight loss. Research shows that to minute sessions of aerobic exercise trigger changes within the brain that help defuse nicotine cravings in smokers. What's more, a separate study found that cardio activity can also make smoking-related images less likely to grab smokers' attention.
People who ran 1. Vigorous activity may also decrease cataract risk. Women who did either moderate exercise for 2. Women who did about twice as much cardio lowered their risk by 55 percent. Look for this banner for recommended activities. Join Active or Sign In. Learn More Customer Login. List your event Need to give your event a boost?
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The answer is D, but the reasoning seems a bit shaky to me. It seems that, with answer D, the test writers are trying to weaken the stimulus by. The new Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) ABCD classification is not better at predicting all-cause and respiratory mortality. A massive new study says there's a single, highly surprising factor that predicts whether men will describe themselves as "happy" (and rank.