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Mixed enforcement

Petri Animal Dish Research &

Voron00
01.06.2018

Content:

  • Petri Animal Dish Research &
  • 7 Body Parts Scientists Can Grow in a Petri Dish
  • COLLECTIONS
  • No disrespect to the petri dish, but they are not inherently interesting -- it's But even using animal cells can be a terrific way to test and research the effect of. A team of researchers has managed to grow “perfect” human blood vessels in a Petri dish and a non-human animal for the first time. In the researchers' petri dishes, different cell types develop, connect It can also help to reduce the amount of animal testing in brain research.

    Petri Animal Dish Research &

    One day, similar tissue could be used to replace heart tissue damaged by a heart attack. Heart tissue regeneration has already proven successful in monkey transplants. However, new techniques might make it easier. Physicians at Cornell University managed to 3D print a realistic ear using living cells from cows and collagen from rat tails.

    Others have grown ears from cow and sheep cells in the lab using a flexible wire frame. The ear was then transplanted onto a rat to make sure it retained its shape and flexibility, as seen in the video above. Before they were growing legs, researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital created new kidneys. Using the same decellularization process, they grew rat kidneys in a lab. Once transplanted into a rat, the kidneys were able to produce urine just like a normal organ.

    Coriell Institute for Medical Research ]. Cell culture studies involve removing tissue or even individual cells from a plant or animal and growing them in a laboratory environment. From there, researchers can measure the response of cells to all sorts of experimentation: The advantage of studying cells as opposed to a whole human or other animal is that any of the biological, environmental or even psychological variability is taken off the table, while the molecular and biological processes remain functional.

    And speaking of those molecular and biological functions, that's exactly why cell culture studies are applicable to humans. For one, researchers might be using human cells in their cell culture studies. Each cell line in a panel contains either a single human chromosome or a small number of human chromosomes, and a full set of mouse chromosomes. For example, suppose a hybrid cell line is shown microscopically to contain a particular human chromosome.

    That hybrid cell line can then be tested biochemically for the presence of various human enzymes, exposed to specific antibodies to detect human surface antigens, or subjected to DNA hybridization and cloning techniques Chapter 7 to locate particular human DNA sequences. The genes encoding a human protein or containing a human DNA sequence detected in such tests must be located on the particular human chromosome carried by the cell line being tested.

    Panels of hybrids between normal mouse and mutant hamster cells also have been established; in these hybrid cells, the majority of mouse chromosomes are lost, allowing mouse genes to be mapped to specific mouse chromosomes.

    One metabolic pathway has been particularly useful in cell-fusion experiments. Most animal cells can synthesize the purine and pyrimidine nucleotides de novo from simpler carbon and nitrogen compounds, rather than from already formed purines and pyrimidines Figure , top. The folic acid antagonists amethopterin and aminopterin interfere with the donation of methyl and formyl groups by tetrahydrofolic acid in the early stages of de novo synthesis of glycine, purine nucleoside monophosphates, and thymidine monophosphate.

    These drugs are called antifolates, since they block reactions involving tetrahydrofolate, an active form of folic acid. Many cells, however, contain enzymes that can synthesize the necessary nucleotides from purine bases and thymidine if they are provided in the medium; these salvage pathways bypass the metabolic blocks imposed by antifolates Figure , bottom. De novo and salvage pathways for nucleotide synthesis. These require the transfer of a methyl or formyl group from more A number of mutant cell lines lacking the enzyme needed to catalyze one of the steps in a salvage pathway have been isolated.

    For example, cell lines lacking thymidine kinase TK can be selected because such cells are resistant to the otherwise toxic thymidine analog 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Cells containing TK convert 5-bromodeoxyuridine into 5-bromodeoxyuridine monophosphate. This nucleoside mono- phosphate is then converted into a nucleoside triphosphate by other enzymes and is incorporated by DNA polymerase into DNA, where it exerts its toxic effects.

    This pathway is blocked in cells with a TK mutation that prevents production of functional TK enzyme. Similarly, cells lacking the HGPRT enzyme have been selected because they are resistant to the otherwise toxic guanine analog 6-thioguanine.

    The medium most often used to select hybrid cells is called HAT medium, because it contains hypoxanthine a purine , aminopterin, and thymidine. The hybrids thus will produce both functional salvage-pathway enzymes and grow on HAT medium. Likewise, hybrids formed by fusion of mutant cells and normal cells can grow in HAT medium. Each normal B lymphocyte in an animal is capable of producing a single type of antibody directed against a specific determinant, or epitope , on an antigen molecule.

    If an animal is injected with an antigen, B lymphocytes that make antibody recognizing the antigen are stimulated to grow and proliferate. Each antigen-activated B lymphocyte forms a clone of cells in the spleen or lymph nodes, with each cell of the clone producing identical antibody, termed monoclonal antibody.

    Because most natural antigens contain multiple epitopes, exposure of an animal to an antigen usually stimulates formation of several different B-lymphocyte clones, each producing a different antibody; a mixture of antibodies that recognize different epitopes on the same antigen is said to be polyclonal.

    For many types of studies involving antibodies, monoclonal antibody is preferable to polyclonal antibody. However, biochemical purification of monoclonal antibody from serum is not feasible, in part because the concentration of any given antibody is quite low.

    For this reason, researchers looked to culture techniques in order to obtain usable quantities of monoclonal antibody. Because primary cultures of normal B lymphocytes do not grow indefinitely, such cultures have limited usefulness for production of monoclonal antibody. This limitation can be avoided by fusing normal B lymphocytes with oncogenically transformed lymphocytes called myeloma cells, which are immortal.

    Fusion of a myeloma cell with a normal antibody -producing cell from a rat or mouse spleen yields a hybrid that proliferates into a clone called a hybridoma. Like myeloma cells, hybridoma cells are immortal. Each hybridoma produces the monoclonal antibody encoded by its B-lymphocyte partner.

    If such mutant myeloma cells are fused with normal B lymphocytes , any fused cells that result can grow in HAT medium, but the parental cells cannot Figure Each selected hybridoma then is tested for production of the desired antibody; any clone producing that antibody then is grown in large cultures, from which a substantial quantity of pure monoclonal antibody can be obtained.

    Procedure for producing a monoclonal antibody to protein X. Immortal myeloma cells that lack HGPRT, an enzyme of the purine-salvage pathway see Figure , are fused with normal antibody-producing spleen cells from an animal that was immunized with more Such pure antibodies are very valuable research reagents.

    For example, a monoclonal antibody that interacts with protein X can be used to label , and thus locate, protein X in specific cells of an organ or in specific cell fractions. Once identified, even very scarce proteins can be isolated by affinity chromatography in columns to which the monoclonal antibody is bound see Figure c.

    Monoclonal antibodies also have become important diagnostic and therapeutic tools in medicine. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to and inactivate toxic proteins toxins secreted by bacterial pathogens are used to treat diseases caused by these pathogens. Other monoclonal antibodies are specific for cell-surface proteins expressed by certain types of tumor cells; chemical complexes of such monoclonal antibodies with toxic drugs are being developed for cancer chemotherapy.

    By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Rich Media Are Required for Culture of Animal Cells Nine amino acids, referred to as the essential amino acids, cannot be synthesized by adult vertebrate animals and thus must be obtained from their diet.

    Table Growth Media for Mammalian Cells. Most Cultured Animal Cells Grow Only on Special Solid Surfaces Within the tissues of intact animals, most cells tightly contact and interact specifically with other cells via various cellular junctions. Figure Cultured mammalian cells viewed at three magnifications. Figure Principal types of epithelium.

    Figure Stages in the establishment of a cell culture. Transformed Cells Can Grow Indefinitely in Culture To be able to clone individual cells, modify cell behavior, or select mutants, biologists often want to maintain cell cultures for many more than doublings.

    Figure Cultured transformed line of rat myoblasts. Figure Fusion of cultured animal cells.

    7 Body Parts Scientists Can Grow in a Petri Dish

    that its 3D Petri Dish™is targeted towards helping to reduce the numbers of animals used in research. The 3D. Petri Dish™ is a new tool for the worldwide. Reducing animal testing with stem cells and electronic petri dishes Case in point: a research group at the University of Bern in Switzerland. Reviewing In-Vitro Tissue Engineering Research: Growing food in animals is the most inefficient way to feed 7 billion people. In the next years.

    COLLECTIONS



    Comments

    Alucard2

    that its 3D Petri Dish™is targeted towards helping to reduce the numbers of animals used in research. The 3D. Petri Dish™ is a new tool for the worldwide.

    GAGIN

    Reducing animal testing with stem cells and electronic petri dishes Case in point: a research group at the University of Bern in Switzerland.

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