Several trials investigated the effects of psychological interventions to of evidence on the efficacy of psychological interventions for acute pain. Studies have also addressed the psychological consequences of exposure to war .. Evidence suggests that a chronically activated, dysregulated acute stress . Heart rate reactions to acute psychological stress were negatively associated with symptoms of depression five years later: Evidence from a large community study. Second, a meta-analysis of 11 relevant studies found.
from Psychological Studies Acute Evidence
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Associations between cardiovascular reactivity at wave 3 and HADS scores at. Corroborative evidence has suggested that anxiety and depression and other negative health outcomes are associated with attenuated cardiovascular reactivity leading to the development of a revised hypothesis called the " Blunted cardiovascular reactivity " defined as the pattern of an individual's annulation cardiovascular response to a stressor or stressor.
For example,Salomon et al. More importantly, Phillips and colleagues Phillips, ; Phillips et al. Phillips postulated that blunted cardiovascular reactivity may be a physiological marker of motivational dysregulation shared by people with depression and obesity Phillips, ;Phillips et al.
More importantly, Phillips and colleagues Phillips, ;Phillips et al. Phillips postulated that blunted cardiovascular reactivity may be a physiological marker of motivational dysregulation shared by people with depression and obesity Phillips, ; Phillips et al. To date most studies have included simple measures of cardiovascular reactivity, namely systolic blood pressure SBP , diastolic blood pressure DBP , and heart rate HR , even though many researchers e.
Blunted cardiovascular reactions are a predictor of negative health outcomes: A prospective cohort study. The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to psychological stress tests predict future anxiety and depression scores months later. Hemodynamic measures were obtained from healthy adults before, during and after mental arithmetic, a speech task, and a cold pressor task.
The item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered at initial testing and at months follow-up. At initial testing analyses revealed that high anxiety symptoms were characterized by blunted cardiovascular reactions to acute mental stress, particularly mental arithmetic. These findings suggest that blunted cardiovascular reactions to stress may be an independent risk factor for future anxiety levels. This is not surprising providing controversy in the literature related to this question: Interestingly, blunted cardiac reactivity to psychological stress prospectively predicted symptoms of depression in a large population study .
Most studies that addressed the link between HRV and resilience documented association of low cardiac vagal tone with PTSD symptoms see [60,61] for reviews. Habituation of the electrodermal response — A biological correlate of resilience?
Current approaches to quantifying resilience make extensive use of self-reported data. Problematically, this type of scales is plagued by response distortions—both deliberate and unintentional, particularly in occupational populations.
The aim of the current study was to develop an objective index of resilience. The study was conducted in 30 young healthy adults. Acoustic stimuli consistently provoked transient skin conductance SC responses, with SC slopes indexing response habituation. Our key finding of the connection between habituation of the skin conductance responses to repeated acoustic startle stimulus and resilience-related psychometric constructs suggests that response habituation paradigm has the potential to characterize important attributes of cognitive fitness and well-being—such as depression, anxiety and resilience.
Therefore, poor cardiovascular recovery following psychological stress might be more relevant for the development of stress-related pathology than stress reactivity itself, as further suggested by a recent meta-analysis Panaite et al. Notably, a large population-based longitudinal study found that cardiovascular blood pressure and heart rate responses to acute psychological stress were negatively associated with depressive symptomatology 5 years later Phillips et al.
Stressful life events are an important cause of psychopathology. Humans exposed to aversive or stressful experiences show considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in their responses. However, the majority does not develop stress-related psychiatric disorders. The dynamic processes encompassing positive and functional adaptation in the face of significant adversity have been broadly defined as resilience.
Traditionally, the assessment of resilience has been confined to self-report measures, both within the general community and putative high-risk populations.
Although this approach has value, it is highly susceptible to subjective bias and may not capture the dynamic nature of resilience, as underlying construct.
Recognizing the obvious benefits of more objective measures of resilience, research in the field has just started investigating the predictive value of several potential biological markers.
This review provides an overview of theoretical views and empirical evidence suggesting that individual differences in heart rate variability HRV , a surrogate index of resting cardiac vagal outflow, may underlie different levels of resilience towards the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders.
Following this line of thought, recent studies describing associations between regional brain morphometric characteristics and resting state vagally-mediated HRV are summarized. Existing studies suggest that the structural morphology of the anterior cingulated cortex ACC , particularly its cortical thickness, is implicated in the expression of individual differences in HRV.
These findings are discussed in light of emerging structural neuroimaging research, linking morphological characteristics of the ACC to psychological traits ascribed to a high-resilient profile and abnormal structural integrity of the ACC to the psychophysiological expression of stress-related mental health consequences. We conclude that a multidisciplinary approach integrating structural brain imaging with HRV monitoring could offer novel perspectives about brain-body pathways in resilience and adaptation to psychological stress.
State anxiety has also been found to be positively associated with BP responses to the cold pressor and anger recall tests Pointer et al. Conversely, other studies have shown a blunted cardiovascular response to acute stress tests [e.
Although the MAST has been utilized to assess the effects on cortisol and subjective levels of stress, affect, and anxiety Smeets et al.
Physiological and Subjective Responses in Anticipation, and Post-stress. The aim of this study was to use the MAST procedure to elicit strong autonomic and subjective stress responses that can be quantified in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate PR , and state anxiety ratings.
Interestingly, the presentation of instructions alerting participants to the procedure resulted in significant elevation of both SBP and DBP above baseline. However, BP measurements prior to test initiation were not as high as those measured immediately after the MAST procedure.
PR data showed limited variability across time points. Self-reported state anxiety increased dramatically from baseline to immediately following the MAST procedure. Further, individuals who reported higher levels of depression and stress were more likely to demonstrate larger increases in SBP in response to the MAST. Together, these results support the use of the MAST as a useful tool to activate both acute physiological and subjective measures of the stress response in healthy adults lasting up to 30 min.
Trait anxiety predicts the response to acute psychological stress. Jan Acta Psychol Sin. Background Little is known about the role of physiological stress responses in metabolic syndrome MetS.
Logistic regressions included clusters and interaction between clusters and sex as independent variables, controlling for relevant covariates. Results using a continuous measure of MetS were generally consistent with these findings. Conclusion Among older participants with CAD or other noncardiovascular disease, hyperreactivity to stress was associated with greater prevalence of MetS, particularly in women. Consistent with emerging literature, women who showed blunting or activation of parasympathetic responses to stress were similarly at greater risk.
Stress reactivity research has traditionally focused on the idea that exaggerated responses to stress may have adverse effects on health.
Accumulating evidence suggests that attenuated responses to stress and delayed recovery may also be problematic. This review focuses on the role of the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical HPA axis, the endogenous opioid system EOS , and the cardiovascular system in hypertension, pain perception, and addictive behaviors.
Results from multiple methods of assessment and stress paradigms conducted in our laboratory over the past two decades are integrated with research from other investigators and with existing theories. Research indicates that exaggerated biological and physiological responses to stress and attenuated pain perception are associated with hypertension and risk for cardiovascular diseases. This research complements work linking reduced stress responses with enhanced pain sensitivity and discomfort.
Multiple studies have also demonstrated that an attenuated stress response is linked to exacerbation of withdrawal symptoms and relapse in nicotine addiction. Evidence indicates important moderators i. Scores on the multi-tasking framework are calculated by the software with speed and accuracy gaining points and errors or failures to respond losing points. Mean present stress scale change from baseline for both conditions over the testing period. Error bars represent standard errors and are presented in one direction only for each point to aid clarity of the figure.
Means standard deviations for the subjective variables. The six scales of the NASA-tlx were scored only at the end of testing and so represent absolute values. There is a greater decrease in calmness in the control condition than in the Rosemary water condition, with a small effect size.
Positive and Negative affect possess equal and opposite-signed small effects in favour of Rosemary Water. With regard to the NASA-tlx scale, participants in the Rosemary water condition found the testing session more physically demanding with a small to medium effect size, but less mentally demanding with a small effect.
Participants in the control condition felt happier with their performance than those in the Rosemary water condition with a small effect size. Figure 1 presents the change from baseline values for the present stress scale. The participants in the Rosemary water condition consistently reported lower stress throughout the testing procedure, with a return to near baseline levels for both groups at the point when the second subjective measures are completed.
Figures two to four display the mean change from baseline for the three physiological variables recorded in the study: As can be seen in Figure 2 , both conditions start the cognitive testing period with a noticeable increase in heart rate compared to baseline of five beats per minute.
As testing progresses heart rate in the Rosemary water condition declines whereas that in the control condition is maintained at a higher level until the end of the testing when the two conditions are reconciled around three beats per minute above baseline. Medium sized effects are observed across the period that represents the completion of the multitasking framework. The multi-tasking framework leads to a large increase in systolic blood pressure in the control condition Figure 3.
This is considerably blunted in the Rosemary water condition. Both conditions show a decline in systolic blood pressure at the end of the framework task although continues to be higher in the control condition with medium to large effects present over the testing period. Mean heart rate change from baseline bpm for both conditions over the testing period. Diastolic blood pressure is largely stable across the testing period in the Rosemary water condition, compared to a noticeable increase in the control condition, particularly during completion of the multi-tasking framework.
Effect sizes are medium to large across the duration of testing Figure 4. Mean systolic blood pressure change from baseline mm Hg for both conditions over the testing period. Mean diastolic blood pressure change from baseline mm Hg for both conditions over the testing period. The data collected in this pilot study reveal some interesting indications regarding the potential for carbonated No.
Due to the pilot nature of the study, tests of significance have been eschewed in favour of measures of effect size as defined by Cohen  , and the discussion will be based around these. Considering the cognitive variables, it was predicted that aspects of memory previously identified as sensitive to Rosemary might benefit from the acute consumption of a Rosemary water product containing active ingredients. This was found to be the case with small effects present.
Indeed the size of the effects observed are similar to those previously reported for both aroma   and oral administration   of Rosemary. In support of the alternate hypothesis that absorption of active compounds is the key that unlocks pharmacological mediated effects, is evidence from animal studies that demonstrate that 1,8-cineole is readily absorbed by the gut and impacts on behaviour  . In vitro studies have previously demonstrated that 1,8-cineole has significant anti-cholinesterase properties  , and given the primary role of the cholinergic system in memory it is possible that such a mechanism underpins the cognitive effects observed here and elsewhere.
Although no bioavailability data exist for No. There is much less impact observed for scores gained on the multi-tasking framework, although this might not be too surprising. As such, it is not designed to be a means of directly assessing cognition, and scores on the four modules are not equally weighted.
It is designed to induce cognitive load and stress through competing demands for the attention of the participant. As a consequence, these parameters shall not be focused on here above the observation that condition did not appear to impact on performance.
What is of greater importance is the impact of the multi-tasking framework on the physiological and subjective measures.
Previous studies have consistently shown that the multi-tasking framework employed here can significantly increase heart rate and blood pressure from baseline levels   .
The current study found responses of the same kind, but notably much greater in the control condition. Indeed, Rosemary water appeared to exert what might be seen as a protective effect on these physiological variables with medium effect sizes across the board. This is of particular interest because no previous studies have identified Rosemary as possessing such properties when consumed orally, and in resting individuals the administration of Rosemary aroma has been associated with an increase in these variables .
However, intravenous injections of 1,8-cineole the major active component in Rosemary essential oil produces decreases in heart rate and blood pressure as a consequence of vascular relaxation in free-to-roam rats .
The possibilities suggested by the data reported here are intriguing, and worthy of further investigation. It may be that Rosemary possesses the properties to alleviate the physiological responses to acute stress through such a mechanism. Consideration of the physiological markers of stress reactivity leads neatly on to the subjective psychological assessments. These are also interesting as they mirror findings reported elsewhere   for Rosemary aroma.
However, their observation here suggests that these effects are not a consequence of olfactory stimulation either. This is perhaps somewhat unexpected as previous studies have suggested that the mechanisms for influencing mood and cognition might be distinct; potentially one olfactory and one pharmacological; as correlations between the two variables have not been consistently present  . It may be the case that the physiological effects on heart rate and blood pressure at a time of stress mediate the subjective mood effects.
Such subjective effects have been reported in chronic patient treatment studies of high blood pressure  , although persistent low blood pressure also has negative effects on mood . Further work is warranted in order to clarify the relationship between physiological and subjective variables in healthy adults at times of stress and when subjected to interventions that might reduce perceived stress in the manner reported here.
Finally, the NASA-tlx produced results that in some respect run counter to those previously reported here. A small to medium effect indicating that Rosemary water produced feelings of greater physical effort or exhaustion as a consequence of completing the study was identified. This might also relate to lower performance satisfaction as the tasks appeared harder?
As a pilot, this study has provided some interesting data that certainly suggest there is value in greater investigation of the potential properties of No. Possible benefits for memory, and in particular the cardiovascular responses to acute stress are exciting avenues to explore.
Indeed, current work in our lab includes a large scale replication of this study, and investigations of the impact of chronic consumption of No. To conclude, Rosemary herb offers a number of interesting possible health promoting applications, from antioxidant and anti-microbial to hepatoprotective and antitumorigenic activity .
The current study adds to the growing evidence in support of the potential for enhancing memory-based aspects of cognitive functioning, improving mood especially in terms of subjective alertness and reduced stress, and perhaps even delivering cardiovascular benefits as well.
Future research in this area would benefit from inclusion of bioavailability data regarding the absorption of identified active components in No. International Journal of Neuroscience, , Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4, International Journal of Neuroscience, 96, Scientia Pharmaceutica, 81, We calculated effect sizes for each comparison Hedges' g and meta-analysed data using a random-effects model.
We added six studies to this update. Overall, we included 23 studies participants. For the majority of outcomes two-thirds , we could not perform a meta-analysis since outcomes were not measured, or data were provided by one trial only. Psychological interventions did not reduce pain intensity in the short-term interval g 0. No study reported data on median time to re-medication or on number of participants re-medicated.
Only two studies provided data on postoperative analgesic use in the short-term interval, showing that psychological interventions did not reduce the use of analgesic medication g 1. Studies revealed that psychological interventions reduced mental distress in the medium-term g 0. Psychological interventions did not improve mobility in the medium-term interval g 0.
Psychological interventions for acute pain after open heart surgery.
Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. Psychological; Aged; Anxiety Disorders; Blood Pressure; Cohort Studies; Female . This article reviews the role of psychological factors in the development of Based on a review of the scientific evidence, a set of 10 principles that have relevant goals Recent studies of patients with chronic pain have. The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a.