Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States Federal Government. Unlike U.S. states and Native American tribes which exercise limited sovereignty alongside the federal government, Five of the territories are permanently inhabited and are classified as. Under United States law, an unincorporated territory is an area controlled by the United States All modern inhabited territories under the control of the federal government can be considered as The United States District Court is not a true United States court established under article 3 of the .. List of Indian reservations. The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, a federal district five The five inhabited territories each have limited autonomy and a non-voting delegate in Congress, in addition to having territorial .. Territories of the United States with no indigenous population .. List of Indian reservations.
territories, districts, and reservations? about Federal inhabited What Indian
The federal Lumbee Act of recognized that tribe in name only. Some may think of treaties involving land as the only example of government relationships with Indians over the years.
Commission of Indian Affairs in offers strong evidence that the state has a positive relationship today with its American Indian citizens, tribes, and groups. The benefits of state recognition range from being eligible for membership on the Commission of Indian Affairs and for program funding, to securing a rightful place in history.
Since the commission has coordinated procedures for recognition. A committee of members from recognized tribes and groups reviews applications. Tribes and groups must meet certain organizational requirements. The creation of institutions such as Pembroke Normal School and East Carolina Indian School offers an example of the historic relationship that Indians have had with this state.
The reservation lands currently held in trust for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and the Historic Tuscarora Indian Reservation in Bertie County are examples of formal relationships between Indians and the federal government. Today, because 10, American Indian students attend public schools in the county, the Public Schools of Robeson County administers one of the largest Indian education programs in the nation, funded by the U.
Statewide, 19, American Indian students attend public schools. The Haliwa-Saponi tribe has reestablished the old Haliwa Indian School in Warren County , which the author attended through the ninth grade. The new Haliwa-Saponi Tribal School is a charter school, attended by about students. Such arrangements, or ongoing government-to-government relationships, offer examples of modern-day treaties with American Indians.
The situations of Indians differ from state to state. The United States has more than federally recognized tribes and forty to fifty state-recognized ones. In North Carolina and nearby states, most Indians are members of state-recognized tribes and do not live on reservations.
The latter is much the case nationwide, according to the U. Census, which found that more than 62 percent of Indians live off reservations.
In Virginia there are three reservations, none of which is recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA ; BIA does not provide the tribal members services or funding for such things as health care, schools, police, or fire protection. The tribes are not authorized to establish casinos or other gaming enterprises that federal recognition allows as an economic development tool.
In South Carolina, only the Catawba tribe has this status. American Indians have long been studied and researched, especially by the academic community; however, for many years, little of that information found its way into history books. Indians constantly question the common practice of focusing on Plains Indians in books and in popular media such as movies or television programs. The history and culture of Eastern Woodland Indians often get overlooked.
In North Carolina, before the Civil Rights era, Indians experienced discrimination and different forms of racism. At one time, some were discouraged to even admit that they were Indians. When a First Nation describes its traditional territory, it is describing this larger land base that it has occupied and utilized for many generations, before reserve borders were imposed and drawn on maps.
When issues of Aboriginal title are discussed, this generally refers to the use and enjoyment of traditional territories. As noted above, for many First Nations, off-reserve locations continue to serve as sites of economic, cultural and spiritual practices.
The relationship to traditional territory also remains significant for many First Nations who have lost access to it, even if they are unable to continue such practices in those locations. Reserve acreage varied across the country. Treaties 1 and 2 allotted acres per family of five, whereas Treaties 3 to 11 granted acres per family of five. In British Columbia, reserves were considerably smaller, with an average of 20 acres granted per family. Methods for determining the location of a reserve also differed.
Some treaties called for reserves near important waterways that were crucial to the survival of the band in question, and some bands were consulted about reserve location.
Ultimately, many reserves are small and provide the respective bands with minimal resources or economic opportunities. In effect, it was an effort to extinguish Aboriginal title through administrative and bureaucratic means. Reserves in British Columbia had barely been established before government officials moved to reduce them in size. As geographer Cole Harris notes,. From the late s, Native leaders [in British Columbia] had protested their small reserves in every way they could, claiming, fundamentally, that their people would not have enough food and that their progeny had no prospects.
In retrospect, they were right. The spaces assigned to Native people did not support them, although the mixed economies they cobbled together, the revised diets they ate, and the accommodations and settlements they lived in had allowed some of them to survive. In response to these ongoing protests, in the federal and British Columbian governments together created the McKenna-McBride Commission to review reserve allotments across the province.
However, the Commission ended up further reducing the size of many reserves, based on their criteria of proper usage such as farming , criteria that differed greatly from that of the band.
In addition, throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Canadian government passed legislation that enabled the government to expropriate parcels of reserve land without the consent of the band and without providing compensation, for the purpose of public utilities rights-of-way such as railways, transmission lines and highways.
This has resulted in the fragmentation and disruption of many reserves. Coastal waters and tidal lands do not form part of the reserve either in most cases.
Although colonists tried to justify the small sizes of many reserves along coastal British Columbia by their access to waterways, Aboriginal fishing grounds and their resources have been restricted by provincial and federal regulations. For more information about this, see our section on Aboriginal Fisheries , as well as Douglas C. Harris, Landing Native Fisheries: The creation of reserves had far-reaching implications for all aspects of Aboriginal life.
The reserve system was, on a fundamental level, a government-sanctioned displacement of First Nations. At the stroke of a pen, reserves divided up not only lands but peoples and Nations that had existed for hundreds if not thousands of years. Families, houses and clans that had hunted and gathered together for generations were abruptly and arbitrarily joined up with other families and houses, disrupting social networks and long-established kinship systems that determined who could hunt, fish, and gather in particular areas.
These houses were designed with the Western nuclear family unit in mind, and could not accommodate larger, more extensive Aboriginal families.
Often shoddily built on a small government budget, housing became yet another foreign and divisive experience imposed by reserves. The Odanak reserve in Quebec, in the territory of the Abanaki people.
Photo by Axel Drainville. Initially, Aboriginal people were able to adapt to this government-imposed restructuring of their homelands and lifestyles. In 19th century British Columbia, for example, many Aboriginal women and men were employed in seasonal labour such as hop picking and cannery work. This allowed them to continue their seasonal ways of life, and to continue their hunting, gathering, and seasonal celebrations.
At the start of the 20th century, however, First Nations peoples in British Columbia began to be marginalized from the capitalist workforce. This was partially due to growing competition from new immigrants some of them willing to perform cheap labour and to open racism in the hiring process. Jobs such as hop picking simply disappeared. Many Aboriginal people living on reserves suddenly found that they were unable to sustain themselves or their families.
This situation intensified into the midth century as Aboriginal peoples, legally wards of the state, found few alternatives to accepting the minimal support offered by the federal government. Nonetheless, as Cole Harris has observed, despite the radical changes brought by the reserve system,. Native lives were still being lived. There were still joys as well as sorrows in Native households. One component of assimilation would be the distribution of property held in-common by the tribe to individual members of the tribe.
The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name given to three treaties signed in Medicine Lodge, Kansas between the US government and southern Plains Indian tribes who would ultimately reside in the western part of Indian Territory ultimately Oklahoma Territory.
The first treaty was signed October 21, , with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes. Another component of assimilation was homesteading. The Act gave an applicant freehold title to an area called a "homestead" — typically acres 65 hectares or one-fourth section of undeveloped federal land. Within Indian Territory, as lands were removed from communal tribal ownership, a land patent or first-title deed was given to tribal members.
The remaining land was sold on a first-come basis, typically by land run , with settlers also receiving a land patent type deed.
For these now former Indian lands, the General Land Office distributed the sales funds to the various tribal entities, according to previously negotiated terms. The Oklahoma organic act of created an organized incorporated territory of the United States of Oklahoma Territory, with the intent of combining the Oklahoma and Indian territories into a single State of Oklahoma.
The citizens of Indian Territory tried, in , to gain admission to the union as the State of Sequoyah , but were rebuffed by Congress and an Administration which did not want two new Western states, Sequoyah and Oklahoma.
Theodore Roosevelt then proposed a compromise that would join Indian Territory with Oklahoma Territory to form a single state. Citizens then joined to seek admission of a single state to the Union. With Oklahoma statehood in November , Indian Territory was extinguished. Indian Territory marks the confluence of the Southern Plains and Southeastern Woodlands cultural regions. Its western region is part of the Great Plains , subjected to extended periods of drought and high winds, and the Ozark Plateau is to the east in a humid subtropical climate zone.
Tribes indigenous to the present day state of Oklahoma include both agrarian and hunter-gatherer tribes. The arrival of horses with the Spanish in the 16th century ushered in horse culture -era, when tribes could adopt a nomadic lifestyle and follow abundant bison herds.
The Southern Plains villagers , an archaeological culture that flourished from to CE, lived in semi-sedentary villages throughout the western part of Indian Territory, where they farmed maize and hunted buffalo. They are likely ancestors of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes.
The ancestors of the Wichita have lived in the eastern Great Plains from the Red River north to Nebraska for at least 2, years. Member tribes of the Caddo Confederacy lived in the eastern part of Indian Territory and are ancestors of the Caddo Nation. The Caddo people speak a Caddoan language and is a confederation of several tribes who traditionally inhabited much of what is now East Texas , northern Louisiana and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma.
The tribe was once part of the Caddoan Mississippian culture and thought to be an extension of woodland period peoples who started inhabiting the area around BCE.
In the Caddo along with several other tribes signed a treaty that made the Caddo a protectorate of the US and established framework of a legal system between the Caddo and the US. The Wichita and Caddo both spoke Caddoan languages , as did the Kichai people , who were also indigenous to what is now Oklahoma and ultimately became part of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes.
The Wichita and other tribes signed a treaty of friendship with the US in In the 18th century, prior to Indian Removal the forced relocation by the US federal government Kiowa , Apache , and Comanche people entered into Indian Territory from the west, and the Quapaw and Osage entered from the east. During Indian Removal of the 19th century, additional tribes received their land either by treaty via land grant from the federal government of the United States or they purchased the land receiving fee simple recorded title.
Between and , the Five Civilized Tribes had gradually ceded most of their lands in the Southeast section of the US through a series of treaties. The southern part of Indian Country what eventually became the State of Oklahoma served as the destination for the policy of Indian removal, a policy pursued intermittently by American presidents early in the 19th century, but aggressively pursued by President Andrew Jackson after the passage of the Indian Removal Act of The Five Civilized Tribes in the South were the most prominent tribes displaced by the policy, a relocation that came to be known as the Trail of Tears during the Choctaw removals starting in The trail ended in what is now Arkansas and Oklahoma, where there were already many Indians living in the territory, as well as whites and escaped slaves.
Other tribes, such as the Delaware , Cheyenne , and Apache were also forced to relocate to the Indian territory. These tribes founded towns such as Tulsa , Ardmore , Muskogee , which became some of the larger towns in the state. They also brought their African slaves to Oklahoma, which added to the black American population in the state. The Western Lakes Confederacy was a loose confederacy of tribes around the Great Lakes region , organized following the American Revolutionary War to resist the expansion of the United States into the Northwest Territory.
Members of the confederacy were ultimately removed to the present-day Oklahoma, including the Shawnee , Delaware also called Lenape , Miami , and Kickapoo. The Treaty of Chicago forced the members of the Council of Three Fires to move first to present-day Iowa, then to Kansas and Nebraska , and ultimately to Oklahoma. The group settling in Nebraska adapted to the Plains Indian culture but the group settling in Kansas remained steadfast to their woodlands culture.
In part of the Kansas group negotiated the "Treaty of Washington with the Potawatomi" in which the Kansas Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation split and part of their land in Kansas was sold, purchasing land near present-day Shawnee, Oklahoma , they became the Citizen Potawatomi Nation.
The Odawa tribe first purchased lands near Ottawa, Kansas , residing there until when they sold their lands in Kansas and purchased land in an area administered by the Quapaw Indian Agency in Ottawa County, Oklahoma , becoming the Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma.
The Peoria tribe , native to southern Illinois, moved south to Missouri then Kansas, where they joined the Piankashaw , Kaskaskia , and Wea tribes. Under stipulations of the Omnibus Treaty of , these confederated tribes and the Miami tribe left Kansas for Indian Territory on lands purchased from the Quapaw.
In pre-revolutionary war days, their confederacy expanded to areas from Kentucky and Virginia north. All of the members of the Confederacy, except the Oneida and Tuscarora, allied with the British during the Revolutionary War, and were forced to cede their land after the war.
Initially, the tribes were moved to the present state of Kansas , and later to Oklahoma on to land administered by the Quapaw Indian Agency. Western Indian Territory is part of the Southern Plains and is the ancestral home of the Wichita people , a Plains tribe.
Additional indigenous peoples of the Plains entered Indian Territory during the horse culture era. Prior to adoption of the horse, some Plains Indian tribes were agrarian and others were hunter-gatherers. Some tribes used the dog as a draft animal to pull small travois or sleighs to help move from place to place; however, by the 18th century, many Southern Plains tribes adopted the horse culture and became nomadic.
The tipi , an animal hide lodge, was used by Plains Indians as a dwelling because they were portable and could be reconstructed quickly when the tribe settled in a new area for hunting or ceremonies.
Historically, the Arapaho had assisted the Cheyenne and Lakota people in driving the Kiowa and Comanche south from the Northern Plains, their hunting area ranged from Montana to Texas. Kiowa and Comanche controlled a vast expanse of territory from the Arkansas River to the Brazos River. By many plains tribes had made peace with each other and developed Plains Indian Sign Language as a means of communicate with their allies. After the Modoc War from to , Modoc people were forced from their homelands in southern Oregon and northern California to settle at the Quapaw Agency , Indian Territory.
The federal government permitted some to return to Oregon in Those that remained in Oklahoma became the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma.
Unincorporated territories of the United States
The 50 states and the Federal District Incorporated unorganized Territory Unincorporated organized territory Commonwealth (see . Inhabited United States territories have democratic self-government, in local List of Indian reservations. There are currently federally recognized Indian tribes in California and 78 These lands constitute “Indian Country”, and a different jurisdictional applies in. Eleven of the twelve American Indian tribes in Montana are recognized .. Members of these tribes lived in the present Province of Saskatchewan until , Congressional Acts. The land to the south was opened to settlement. During . The Crow Reservation is divided into six districts for cultural and Crow governmental.