Managing the symptoms of fibromyalgia or related ailments is not easy. So, many patients turn to complementary health approaches to pain. 5. Fibromyalgia is associated with additional symptoms which seem distinct themselves but are actually included in fibromyalgia syndrome. While you may be hesitant to work out and aggravate pain, exercise can actually help with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is a long-lasting or chronic disorder that causes extreme muscle pain and fatigue. Why do certain exercises make fibromyalgia symptoms worse?.
Fibromyalgia can be effectively treated and managed with medication and self-management strategies. You can learn about self-management strategies in the section below titled How can I improve my quality of life?
Fibromyalgia should be treated by a doctor or team of healthcare professionals who specialize in the treatment of fibromyalgia and other types of arthritis, called rheumatologists.
Doctors usually treat fibromyalgia with a combination of treatments, which may include:. In addition to medical treatment, people can manage their fibromyalgia with the self-management strategies described below, which are proven to reduce pain and disability, so they can pursue the activities important to them.
Fibromyalgia can cause pain, disability, and lower quality of life. US adults with fibromyalgia may have complications such as:.
They discourage the use of strong opioids and only recommend using them while they continue to provide improved pain and functioning. Healthcare providers should monitor people on opioids for ongoing effectiveness, side effects and possible unwanted drug behaviors. The European League Against Rheumatism in recommends tramadol and other weak opioids may be used for pain but not strong opioids.
A large study of US people with fibromyalgia found that between and A review concluded that a period of nine months of growth hormone was required to reduce fibromyalgia symptoms and normalize IGF However, this medication was not approved by the FDA for the indication for use in people with fibromyalgia due to the concern for abuse. The muscle relaxants cyclobenzaprine , carisoprodol with acetaminophen and caffeine and tizanidine are sometimes used to treat fibromyalgia; however as of they are not approved for this use in the United States.
There is some evidence that 5HT 3 antagonists may be beneficial. Very low quality evidence suggests quetiapine may be effective in fibromyalgia. No high quality evidence exists that suggests synthetic THC nabilone helps with fibromyalgia. Due to the uncertainty about the pathogenesis of FM, current treatment approaches focus on management of symptoms to improve quality of life,  using integrated pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches.
Non-pharmacological components include cognitive-behavioural therapy CBT , exercise and psychoeducation specifically, sleep hygiene. A systematic review of 14 studies reported that CBT improves self-efficacy or coping with pain and reduces the number of physician visits at post-treatment, but has no significant effect on pain, fatigue, sleep or health-related quality of life at post-treatment or follow-up. Depressed mood was also improved but this could not be distinguished from some risks of bias.
Mind-body therapies focus on interactions among the brain, mind, body and behaviour. The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine defines the treatments under holistic principle that mind-body are interconnected and through treatment there is improvement in psychological and physical well-being, and allow patient to have an active role in their treatment.
There is only weak evidence that psychological intervention is effective in the treatment of fibromyalgia and no good evidence for the benefit of other mind-body therapies. There is strong evidence indicating that exercise improves fitness and sleep and may reduce pain and fatigue in some people with fibromyalgia.
A recommended approach to a graded exercise program begins with small, frequent exercise periods and builds up from there. These programs also employ counseling, art therapy, and music therapy. Although in itself neither degenerative nor fatal, the chronic pain of fibromyalgia is pervasive and persistent.
Most people with fibromyalgia report that their symptoms do not improve over time. An evaluation of consecutive new people with fibromyalgia found that disease-related factors such as pain and psychological factors such as work status, helplessness, education, and coping ability had an independent and significant relationship to FM symptom severity and function.
Chronic widespread pain had already been described in the literature in the 19th century but the term fibromyalgia was not used until when Dr P. Hench used it to describe these symptoms. Historical perspectives on the development of the fibromyalgia concept note the "central importance" of a paper by Smythe and Moldofsky on fibrositis.
In , an interconnection between fibromyalgia syndrome and other similar conditions was proposed,  and in , trials of the first proposed medications for fibromyalgia were published. A article in the Journal of the American Medical Association used the term "fibromyalgia syndrome" while saying it was a "controversial condition".
People with fibromyalgia generally have higher health-care costs and utilization rates. A study of almost 20, Humana members enrolled in Medicare Advantage and commercial plans compared costs and medical utilizations and found that people with fibromyalgia used twice as much pain-related medication as those without fibromyalgia.
Furthermore, the use of medications and medical necessities increased markedly across many measures once diagnosis was made. Fibromyalgia was defined relatively recently. It continues to be a disputed diagnosis. Frederick Wolfe, lead author of the paper that first defined the diagnostic guidelines for fibromyalgia, stated in that he believed it "clearly" not to be a disease but instead a physical response to depression and stress.
Some members of the medical community do not consider fibromyalgia a disease because of a lack of abnormalities on physical examination and the absence of objective diagnostic tests. Neurologists and pain specialists tend to view fibromyalgia as a pathology due to dysfunction of muscles and connective tissue as well as functional abnormalities in the central nervous system.
Rheumatologists define the syndrome in the context of "central sensitization" — heightened brain response to normal stimuli in the absence of disorders of the muscles, joints, or connective tissues. On the other hand, psychiatrists often view fibromyalgia as a type of affective disorder , whereas specialists in psychosomatic medicine tend to view fibromyalgia as being a somatic symptom disorder.
These controversies do not engage healthcare specialists alone; some patients object to fibromyalgia being described in purely somatic terms. There is extensive research evidence to support the view that the central symptom of fibromyalgia, namely pain, has a neurogenic origin, though this is consistent in both views.
The validity of fibromyalgia as a unique clinical entity is a matter of contention because "no discrete boundary separates syndromes such as FMS, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, or chronic muscular headaches".
Investigational medications include cannabinoids and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 16 March American Academy of Neurology". Retrieved 1 June Int J Rheum Dis. Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 15 March The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Genetic aspects of fibromyalgia syndrome".
American College of Rheumatology. Archived from the original on 17 March Mayo Clinic Proceedings Review. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. Neurobiological foundations for EMDR practice.
Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 26 August Curr Pain Headache Rep. Retrieved 21 May Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Catherine 1 October A systematic review with meta-analysis".
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Longitudinal data on an adult female population in Norway". Curr Med Res Opin. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. Archived PDF from the original on 6 November The American Journal of Medicine. Etiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment". Fibromyalgia is most common in women, though it can occur in men. It most often starts in middle adulthood, but can occur in the teen years and in old age.
You are at higher risk for fibromyalgia if you have a rheumatic disease health problem that affects the joints, muscles and bones. These include osteoarthritis , lupus , rheumatoid arthritis , or ankylosing spondylitis. Fibromyalgia is a neurologic chronic health condition that causes pain all over the body and other symptoms. Other symptoms of fibromyalgia that patients most often have are:. The causes of fibromyalgia are unclear. They may be different in different people.
Current research suggests involvement of the nervous system, particularly the central nervous system brain and spinal cord. Fibromyalgia is not from an autoimmune, inflammation, joint, or muscle disorder. Fibromyalgia may run in families. There likely are certain genes that can make people more prone to getting fibromyalgia and the other health problems that can occur with it.
Genes alone, though, do not cause fibromyalgia. There is most often some triggering factor that sets off fibromyalgia. It may be spine problems, arthritis, injury, or other type of physical stress. Emotional stress also may trigger this illness. Levels of brain chemicals and proteins may change. More recently, Fibromyalgia has been described as Central Pain Amplification disorder, meaning the volume of pain sensation in the brain is turned up too high. Although Fibromyalgia can affect quality of life, it is still considered medically benign.
It does not cause any heart attacks, stroke, cancer, physical deformities, or loss of life. A doctor will suspect fibromyalgia based on your symptoms. Doctors may require that you have tenderness to pressure or tender points at a specific number of certain spots before saying you have fibromyalgia, but they are not required to make the diagnosis see the Box. A physical exam can be helpful to detect tenderness and to exclude other causes of muscle pain. There are no diagnostic tests such as X-rays or blood tests for this problem.
Yet, you may need tests to rule out another health problem that can be confused with fibromyalgia. Because widespread body pain is the main feature of fibromyalgia, health care providers will ask you to describe your pain. This may help tell the difference between fibromyalgia and other diseases with similar symptoms.
Other conditions such as hypothyroidism underactive thyroid gland and polymyalgia rheumatica sometimes mimic fibromyalgia. Blood tests can tell if you have either of these problems. Sometimes, fibromyalgia is confused with rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. But, again, there is a difference in the symptoms, physical findings and blood tests that will help your health care provider detect these health problems.
Unlike fibromyalgia, these rheumatic diseases cause inflammation in the joints and tissues. Pain and symptoms over the past week, based on the total of number of painful areas out of 19 parts of the body plus level of severity of these symptoms: Cognitive memory or thought problems.
There is no cure for fibromyalgia. However, symptoms can be treated with both non-drug and medication based treatments. Many times the best outcomes are achieved by using multiple types of treatments. People with fibromyalgia should use non-drug treatments as well as any medicines their doctors suggest.
Research shows that the most effective treatment for fibromyalgia is physical exercise. Physical exercise should be used in addition to any drug treatment. Patients benefit most from regular aerobic exercises.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a . sensitivity to pain but no associated psychiatric conditions" (may respond to medications that block the 5-HT3 receptor); "fibromyalgia and comorbid. Table 5Disorders that can mimic and/or overlap with fibromyalgia along with characteristic clinical features which differentiate them from fibromyalgia. Low-dose naltrexone reduced fibromyalgia symptoms in the entire cohort, with a debilitating condition that afflicts approximately 5% of women  and % of.